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Light can have wave-like or particle-like properties depending on the experiment being done. These "particles" of light are called photons. In this tutorial you'll learn about photon energy and momentum.


Atoms and electrons

Sometimes people draw atoms like little solar systems, but they're way stranger than that. In this section you'll learn how electrons can have wavelengths, jump orbitals, and emit photons while in an atom.

  • De Broglie wavelength
  • Quantum Wavefunction
  • Atomic Energy Levels
  • Bohr model radii (derivation using physics)
  • Bohr model energy levels (derivation using physics)

  • Quantum numbers and orbitals

    In this tutorial, we will see how the quantum numbers predict the orbitals available in different energy levels.


  • The quantum mechanical model of the atom
  • Heisenberg uncertainty principle
  • Atomic Energy Levels
  • Quantum numbers
  • Quantum numbers for the first four shells

  • Nuclei

    In this tutorial, we will learn about radioactive decay, nuclear stability, and what is happening on a subatomic level during a nuclear reaction.


  • Mass defect and binding energy
  • Nuclear stability and nuclear equations
  • Types of decay
  • Writing nuclear equations for alpha, beta, and gamma decay
  • Half-life and carbon dating
  • Exponential decay and semi-log plots